Updated: Jun 30


A controversial video of a group smacking an aged Muslim man, caught fire on June 5 in Loni, Ghaziabad, wherein the Police Department has been investigating the involvement of micro blogging platforms and netizens in relation to the matter. As per the officials, the authorities are looking into whether the media clip was disseminated with the purpose of sparking communal strife. In recent times, this wasn't the only social media incident which was deployed as a bullhorn for ethnic and communal hate speech with the covert intent of inciting ferocious fallout.

Formerly, India has encountered a series of communal violence incidents, but in contemporary era of social media, these atrocities aren't only limited to the regional populace; they impair the whole nation. The cloud of misinformation, speculation, and hatred not only serve as fuel in a small ethnic conflagration but quickly swept across India as fire via social media.

Social media has cascading effects on both a person's personal and social lives. Through this piece of work, the authors aim to illuminate how social networking is gradually attempting to gain psychosocial dominance over individuals on a community level, as well as how it has evolved into an influential weapon of political demagoguery.

Social Media: A Weapon to elicit Communal Violence

Polarization amongst the communities has moved on a virtual space from the conventional word-of-mouth. It can be defined as a confrontation or action involving conflict between two or more cultural or ethnic divisions. Nearly every society in the modern world is affected by this issue. Since the internet community is so influential, it’s turning into an inflammable concern.

- Hate Speech

Incitement of hatred, particularly centered on religion is widely propagated via social media. It's also employed by unscrupulous forces to spread fear mongering hate speech in a way that makes it challenging to track down the source and hold the user accountable. For instance, the movie, Padmavat experienced a deluge of hate and abusive comments after a set of people who had not even watched it claimed that it harmed their cultural feelings.

- Fake News

As the bountiful audio-visual details of violence and hate speeches are disseminated to the public almost instantly, social media played a major part in propagating false information at a lightning speed. However, rather than rousing guilt or changing opinions, these horrific visuals of cruelty have strengthened prejudices and cemented beliefs. Communal violence breakouts, such as the Muzaffarnagar riots, the Dadri Mob Lynching, the Kathua Rape Case, and Delhi Riots have been exacerbated by the pace and intuitiveness with which social media transmits misinformation. As a result of the usage of social media in the backdrop of all of the episodes, what would have been a local dispute half a century ago has become a countrywide, and potentially a global problem.

- Ramifications

• Human rights violations

• Results in the loss of life and public property; solely for a group’s interest

• Facilitates electoral base for ideologically inclined political parties

• Long-term detrimental effects on communal harmony and puts strain on society's cohesion

• Taints the national reputation as a diverse society in the eyes of the international community

• Stifles constitutional ideals such as equality, fraternity and secularism

Social Media Regulation: A quandary

Government agencies and social media sites have both been chastised for failing to protect data and properly regulate content. On one hand, various platforms, scholars, and politicians have praised the government-led moderation of illegal content, which includes appropriate counterbalances against arbitrary imposition. While on the other, human rights organizations and campaigners are cynical of state involvement, through the arbitrary imposition of bans, content filtering, or internet shutdowns. Another model proposed promotes the idea of "self-regulation," in which the platform itself decides on user policies and community rules.

The dilemma pertaining to hate speech or fake news legislation arises due to the current ethical-legal gap, with the administration deviating from a conservative perspective of online places and data. Owing to the comprehensive jurisdictional character of these crimes and their ease of amplification, removing content is not a panacea for combating hate speech and false news. While it is necessary to scrutinize facts and remove provocative and false information, complicated content-driven challenges have developed. For instance, both Left and Right-wing parties in India have accused Facebook of “ideological bias.” The Union Minister for Information Technology has described it as “inherently biased” towards those who favor right-wing ideology and the “latest weapon to incite internal divisions and social disturbances.” Platforms may easily hide under the guise of free speech facilitators, with little, if any, accountability. The absence of government accountability necessitates a reconsideration of the function and configuration of social media networks in order to counteract their abuse.

The Communal Violence (Prevention, Control, and Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill sat in Parliament for nine years, from 2005 to 2014, which never saw the light of the day. Likewise, the TK Viswanathan Committee, established in 2017, sugge